IV. CMS SURVEY METHODOLOGY
1. National Representative Surveys of the Population (S1)
The sample size of the national representative surveys is about 1200–1500. The sample is representative of the Bulgarian population aged 15 and over.
Surveys will be based on a two-stage cluster sample constructed from the list of the electoral sections of the last parliamentary or local elections. In the first stage, primary units (clusters) are chosen with probability proportional to the size of units according to the number of the electoral sections in the country. In the second stage, the respondents within the clusters are chosen at random. Each interviewer will be supplied with the names and the addresses of the respondents to be interviewed.
The survey method will be face-to-face interview.
Information will be collected about public opinion on the following main issues:
• public attitudes towards corruption — scope, levels, types, public tolerance, identification of the corruption, etc.;
• personal experience of the respondents with different types of corrupt practices;
• assessment of the economic situation in Bulgaria as a factor of corruption;
• political corruption and trust in the public institutions;
• anti-corruption strategies and activities, etc.
2. Quantitative Survey of Public Officials (S2)
Quantitative survey of public officials is conducted with a sample of 300 officials. The survey method is face-to-face interview.
There are two important advantages of this method:
• compared to the national representative surveys of the population the sample is smaller. In this sense, this type of survey is more flexible;
• a specific social group could be addressed, whose opinions and evaluations very often determine the decisions taken by the major actors in the political and economic scene.
Public officials from the following spheres will be interviewed:
1. Public officials in the central administration;
2. Public officials at the local level of municipal authorities;
3. Public officials at the Employment Offices, Social Care Centers, National Insurance Institute, etc.;
5. Court officials (judges, prosecutors, investigators);
6. Customs officials;
7. Tax officials;
8. Financial inspectors;
9. Public health (physicians, dentists, nurses, hospital administrators);
10. Education (university professors, university administrators, school-teachers);
11. PTT and telecommunication officials and others.
Quota sampling of the public officials will be used, based on the following criteria:
1. Type of employment;
3. Type of settlement;
3. Focus group discussions (S3, S4)
Three types of discussions are to be held: with public sector officials, with businessmen and managers, and with experts. Representatives of different groups of public officials will be recruited to participate in the focus groups — central and local administration, health system, education, police, judicial system, social care, tax administration and customs, etc.
The recruitment procedure to be used includes the following steps:
• to select the participants from various groups of public officials and experts, and to receive their consent to participate in one of the focus groups;
• to compose the groups with a ratio between potential and actual participants of at least 2:1, i.e. 13–15 respondents for each group;
• to receive final agreement of the selected potential participants 2–3 days before carrying out the discussions. Expected refusal rate is about 20–25%;
• to select the final participants (8–10 persons) on the day of the discussions.
Using the focus groups will help to achieve a better understanding of corruption-related attitudes, expectations, motives and behavior of the public officials. Qualitative study allows to better formulate the questions of the quantitative survey and to delineate new problematic areas to be addressed in the framework of Coalition 2000 activities.
4. In-depth interviews with Policy Makers (S5)
In-depth interviews are included in the diagnostic component of the project and are conducted once per year. A quota sample of 20 policy makers will be used. Representatives of governmental and municipal administration, parliamentarians, ministers, directors of state and private enterprises, mayors and councilors will be interviewed as follows:
• 10 in-depth interviews with politicians and public officials in central and local level administration;
• 10 in-depth interviews with businessmen and managers.
The main advantages of this kind of interview are the elimination of group influences and deeper elaboration of the topics, revealing the details and nuances of the issues under consideration which could not be detected by quantitative methods.
5. Media monitoring (S6)
As an element of the CMS, media monitoring is designed to achieve several objectives:
• to measure the level of exposure of corruption-related problems in electronic and print media. Assessments about the influence of the media on the attitudes and opinions of different social groups will be made through the use of specific research techniques;
• to produce feedback about the media coverage of the initiatives of Coalition 2000 and other similar citizens’ activities aimed at curbing corruption.
Media monitoring objectives will be achieved through synchronized activities in three directions:
1. Regular monitoring of the news programs of National TV and National Radio.
The purpose of the monitoring is to locate the coverage of corruption-related issues in the news programs. Monitoring is conducted using a specially designed questionnaire, and data will be summarized and presented as a part of the report “Corruption Indices of Coalition 2000.”
2. Regular monitoring of central newspapers with national coverage.
The objective of the monitoring is to gauge the presence of corruption-related problems in the whole aggregate of the observed print media. Monitoring is conducted using a specially designed questionnaire, and data will be summarized and presented as a part of the report “Corruption Indices of Coalition 2000.”
3. Collating the results of media monitoring and quantitative surveys (S1 and S2).
This element of media monitoring is based on Agenda Setting methodology. This is a research method which uses statistical tools to identify relationships between the media coverage of a certain topic and the public attitudes and opinions registered at the same time period. The Agenda Setting approach allows conclusions to be drawn about the correlation between public attitudes, media influences, and the broader social context.
This type of analysis will provide substantial feedback concerning the implementation of the initiatives of Coalition 2000 as well as an accurate definition of the objectives and activities included in the Public Awareness Campaign.